Recognizing the Reality of Working College Students (2023)

Recognizing the Reality of Working College Students (1)

When academically qualified people do not have the financial resources needed to enroll and succeed in college, higher education fails to fulfill the promise of promoting social mobility—and may actually serve to reinforce social inequities. The cost of college attendance is rising faster than family incomes, and increases in federal, state, and institutional grants have been insufficient to meet all students’ demonstrated financial needs. Between 2008–09 and 2017–18, average tuition and fees increased in constant dollars by 36 percent at public four-year institutions and 34 percent at public two-year institutions, while median family income rose by only 8 percent. The maximum federal Pell Grant covered 60 percent of tuition and fees at public four-year institutions in 2018–19, down from 92 percent in 1998–99. Full-time, dependent undergraduate students in the lowest family-income quartile averaged $9,143 in unmet financial need in 2016, up 149 percent (in constant dollars) from $3,665 in 1990.

Students who do not have sufficient savings, wealth, or access to other financial resources have few options for paying costs that are not covered by grants: they can take on loans, get a job, or do both. While these options pay off for many students, a higher education finance system that requires the use of loans and paid employment disproportionately disadvantages individuals from groups that continue to be underrepresented in and underserved by higher education.

Growth in student loan debt is well documented. As of the second quarter of 2019, total outstanding student loan debt in the United States exceeded $1.6 trillion and represented the largest source of nonhousing debt for American households. Annual total borrowing among undergraduate and graduate students from federal and nonfederal sources increased 101 percent (by $53 billion) in constant dollars from 1998–99 to 2018–19.

Many individuals who use loans to pay college costs complete their educational programs, obtain jobs with sufficiently high earnings, and repay their loans. But the implications of borrowing vary across groups and are especially problematic for students who do not complete their degree. The Institute for College Access and Success reports lower loan repayment rates for Pell Grant recipients, first-generation students, and black and Hispanic students as well as for students who attend for-profit institutions. Black students also average higher rates and amounts of federal loans and experience higher default rates.

Like taking on loans, working for pay can have benefits. Paid employment can provide students with money they need to stay enrolled, and it can build human capital and improve labor-market outcomes. An exploratory study by Anne-Marie Nuñez and Vanessa A. Sansone found that first-generation Latinx students developed new relationships, skills, and knowledge through work and experienced satisfaction and enjoyment from working. But working can also have harmful consequences. And, as with loans, the negative implications of paid employment are more commonly experienced by students from underserved and underrepresented groups.

The circumstances of working students today can undermine the mission of higher education for multiple reasons.

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1. Many undergraduates are working more than twenty hours per week.

The US Department of Education reported that, in 2017, 43 percent of all full-time undergraduate students and 81 percent of part-time students were employed while enrolled (see table). The proportion of full-time students working for pay was higher in 2017 than in 2010, when 41 percent were employed, but lower than in 2005, when 50 percent worked for pay while enrolled. Employment rates for part-time students follow a similar fluctuating pattern: 86 percent in 2005, 75 percent in 2010, and 81 percent in 2017. In all, more than 11.4 million undergraduate students (58 percent) worked for pay while enrolled in 2017.

Recognizing the Reality of Working College Students (2)
Descriptive and correlational studies of national data sets consistently show that students who work fifteen to twenty hours per week, especially on campus, tend to have better outcomes than those who do not work and those who work more than twenty hours per week. But many students are working more than this recommended level. According to the US Department of Education, in 2017, 63 percent of undergraduates who worked and were enrolled full time and 88 percent of those who worked and were enrolled part time worked more than twenty hours per week. For all working students in 2016, the average number of hours worked per week was 28.3, with full-time students averaging 24.8 hours of work per week and part-time students averaging 33.1 hours, according to our analysis of data from the National Postsecondary Student Aid Study (NPSAS).

2. Working for pay is more common among undergraduates from underserved groups.

The financial need to work while enrolled, with all its negative consequences, disproportionately burdens students from historically underserved groups. While students from all family backgrounds work for pay, students from low-income families are more likely to do so—and, among those who are employed, work more hours on average—than their higher-income peers. The US Department of Education reports that, in 2017, 16 percent of black full-time students and 13 percent of Hispanic full-time students worked at least thirty-five hours per week while enrolled, compared with 9 percent of white full-time students.

Students who are classified as independent for financial aid purposes more commonly work for pay while enrolled than students who are classified as financially dependent (69 percent versus 59 percent in 2015–16, according to our analysis of 2016 NPSAS data). Working undergraduates who are independent also average more hours of work per week than working-dependent undergraduates (33.8 versus 22.1). Among working students, nearly three quarters (71 percent) of those who were also single parents with a dependent child worked thirty or more hours per week in 2016, compared with 50 percent of all working students.

3. Working for pay while enrolled is more common at under-resourced institutions.

The rate of employment and the rate of working more than twenty hours per week are higher among full-time students attending two-year institutions than among those attending four-year institutions. In 2017, 50 percent of full-time students at two-year institutions worked, and 72 percent of these working students worked more than twenty hours per week, according to the US Department of Education. By comparison, 41 percent of full-time students at four-year institutions worked; 60 percent of these students worked at least twenty hours per week.

Two-year institutions, as well as for-profit and less selective four-year institutions, enroll higher shares of students from low-income families. The Center for Community College Student Engagement reported that nearly half (46 percent) of Pell Grant recipients attending public two-year colleges in 2017 worked more than twenty hours per week.

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4. Working while enrolled can be harmful to student outcomes.

Working can have costs, as time spent working reduces time available for educational activities. Research has shown that working more than twenty hours per week is associated with lower grades and retention rates. Studies also show that working may slow the rate of credit-hour accumulation, encourage part-time rather than full-time enrollment, and reduce the likelihood of completing a bachelor’s degree within six years. These outcomes lengthen the time to degree, which can increase opportunity and other college costs. Reducing enrollment to less than half time reduces eligibility for federal Pell Grants and other aid. And the need to allocate time to paid employment may create stress, especially for students who are also parents or other caregivers. A disproportionate share of single parents enrolled in college are black and American Indian women.

5. Students from low-income families and other underserved groups are less likely to have jobs that advance career-related knowledge and skills.

While any employment may improve conscientiousness, teamwork, and other occupational skills, not all jobs will advance career-related knowledge and skills. About a quarter (26 percent) of working students under the age of thirty held a job in the food and personal services industries in 2012, according to data in Learning While Earning, a report from Georgetown University’s Center on Education and the Workforce; only 6 percent held managerial positions. In addition to working more hours on average than their higher-income peers, students from lower-income families are also less likely to have paid internships or other positions related to their career goals.

In a 2016 study, Judith Scott-Clayton and Veronica Minaya of Columbia University found that students with on-campus work locations and major- or career-related positions had higher rates of bachelor’s degree completion than students with other employment. Yet students from lower-income families and other underserved groups are less likely to hold on-campus and major-related jobs.

Ensuring that Work “Works”

Higher rates and intensity of employment among students from underserved backgrounds and those attending under-resourced institutions suggest that employment during college is serving to reinforce inequity in higher education opportunity, experiences, and outcomes. Changes in public policy and institutional practice are needed if higher education is to address these inequities. These efforts should focus on reducing the financial need to work and on minimizing the harm, while maximizing the benefits, of work.

Reducing the Need to Work

Even with current levels of employment, many students are struggling to make ends meet. In the 2015 National Survey of Student Engagement, most seniors at four-year institutions (63 percent) reported being “worried about having enough money” and half (48 percent) reported that they “did not participate in [unspecified] activities due to lack of money.” Reports of financial stress were more common among first-generation, black, and Hispanic students and among students over the age of twenty-four. More than a third (38 percent) of Pell Grant recipients at community colleges who worked more than twenty hours per week reported “running out of money” at least six times in a year, even though 46 percent worked more than twenty hours per week, according to the Center for Community College Student Engagement; only 22 percent reported having access to cash, credit, or other sources of funds for an “unexpected need.”

The following strategies may help to reduce students’ financial need to work more than twenty hours per week, while still ensuring that they have the financial resources needed to enroll, engage, and persist to degree completion.

1. Reduce unmet financial need.

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Federal, state, and local public policy makers can reduce unmet financial need by appropriating more resources to institutions, which can then be used to keep tuition low, and allocate more need-based grant aid. Institutional leaders can reduce unmet financial need by maximizing the availability of need-based grant aid, limiting merit-based grant aid, and controlling costs. Offering additional need-based aid to low-income students has been shown to reduce employment rates and number of hours worked and increase the likelihood of on-time degree completion.

2. Do not penalize students who work for pay in financial aid calculations.

Students should work to cover their own contribution to the Expected Family Contribution, as well as unanticipated costs that arise while enrolled. Student earnings from work should not be viewed as a way to cover costs that are omitted from an institution’s official cost of attendance or for covering unmet need. Working should provide a mechanism for paying unanticipated costs without influencing the availability of resources to pay the costs needed to stay enrolled.

3. Help students make individually appropriate decisions about federal loans and work.

Whether because of risk or loan aversion or because of incomplete or inaccurate information, some students do not use federal loans. Higher rates of loan aversion have been observed among men and Hispanic students. K–12 and higher education counselors and administrators should educate students, especially those from underserved groups, about the costs and benefits of paid employment and different types of loans and discuss how working more than twenty hours per week may increase time to degree, reduce the likelihood of completion, and result in other costs.

4. Ensure that students apply for and receive the need-based grant aid for which they are eligible.

Not all students who are eligible for need-based aid apply for and receive the aid. In 2011–12, in part because of a lack of clear information, approximately 20 percent of all undergraduates, and 16 percent of those with incomes below $30,000, did not file a Free Application for Federal Student Aid (FAFSA), a condition for receiving most federal and state need-based aid. The Institute for College Access and Success reports FAFSA verification may also limit aid receipt and enrollment, especially for low-income students.

Minimizing Harm, Maximizing Benefits

Colleges and universities should also act to minimize the harm and maximize the benefits of working. The following strategies may help.

1. Increase the availability of on-campus and major-related employment.

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Institutions should identify on-campus employment opportunities for students that are related to their major field and provide opportunities to build career-related knowledge and skills. Descriptive analyses suggest that academic outcomes are better for students who are employed on campus rather than off campus.

2. Ensure that high-quality academic and other supports are available to working students.

Creating an institutional environment that promotes success for working students requires a campus-wide effort. Observers have recommended that institutions support working students by offering courses in the evenings, on weekends, and online; making available future course schedules; offering access to academic advising, office hours, and other support services at night and on weekends; offering online course registration and virtual academic advising; providing child-care options; and designating space for working students to study. Institutions may also connect employment and educational experiences through career counseling and occupational placement.

3. Recognize differences in employment-related needs and experiences.

Institutions should also recognize differences in the supports needed by different groups of working students, as, for example, the experiences, needs, and goals of working adult part-time students are different from those of working full-time students who are still dependents. The Learning While Earning report recommends that institutions develop collaborations with area employers in order to provide adult working students with “convenient learning options; child care; affordable transportation options; employment partnership agreements; access to healthcare insurance; paid sick, maternity, and paternity leave; financial literacy and wealth building information and retirement and investment options; and tuition assistance.”

Colleges and universities, especially those that enroll high shares of working adults, should also consider mechanisms for awarding credit for work and other prior experiences. These mechanisms include the College Board’s College-Level Examination Program and the American Council on Education’s College Credit Recommendation Service.


Employment during college too often contributes to inequity in higher education opportunity, experiences, and outcomes. More can and should be done to ensure that all students—especially students who must work for pay while enrolled—can fully engage in the academic experience, realize the potential benefits of working, and make timely progress to degree completion.

Laura W. Perna is GSE Centennial Presidential Professor of Education and executive director of theAlliance for Higher Education and Democracy (AHEAD)at the University of Pennsylvania. Her recent publications include Improving Research-Based Knowledge of College Promise Programs (2019, with Edward Smith) and Taking It to the Streets: The Role of Scholarship in Advocacy and Advocacy in Scholarship(2018). Her email address is [emailprotected]. Taylor K. Odle is a PhD student in higher education in Penn’s Graduate School of Education and an AM candidate in statistics at the Wharton School. He was previously assistant director for fiscal policy and research at the Tennessee Higher Education Commission. His email address is [emailprotected].


What is the importance of being a working students? ›

Studies show that students who work up to 30 hours a week do just as well or even better academically than those who don't. Working only 12-15 hours a week (as most students do) shouldn't affect your grades. Studies also show that students who work on campus are more likely to persist in their studies.

How working students affects their academic performance? ›

Most respondents agreed that working while studying had effects on their academic performance. The most common effect was poor participation in class activities. However, they could relate work skills to some school activities. Likewise, the students learn to balance time for work and study.

What are the students perception of working while studying? ›

The second research question looked at positive and negative effects of working while studying. The findings showed that the participants have happy feeling and good time management. Additionally, they become more responsible and improved their personal life.

What is the life of a working student? ›

Balancing work and school errands are tiring. You start your day as early as possible and may even feel that the hours devoted aren't enough. You are one of those who wish for few extra hours to catch more winks. A working student usually goes to bed tired from the long list of errands they need to finish.

What are the benefits of working in college? ›

Benefits of Working a Job While in College
  • It Increases Cash Flow. ...
  • It Reduces College Debt. ...
  • It Teaches Money Management Skills. ...
  • It Teaches Time Management Skills. ...
  • It Puts You Ahead of the Competition. ...
  • It Boosts Future Earning Potential. ...
  • It Provides Networking Opportunities. ...
  • It Can Improve Grades and Graduation Rates.
9 May 2022

What are the advantages and disadvantages of being a working student? ›

The pros of working while in college
  • Pro: Earning an income. ...
  • Pro: Mastering time management. ...
  • Pro: Graduating with less student debt. ...
  • Pro: Gaining professional experience. ...
  • Pro: Expanding your circle. ...
  • Con: Forfeiting time to devote to your studies. ...
  • Con: De-prioritizing free time and extracurricular activities.
21 May 2018

What are the common problems of working students? ›

8 Challenges Working Students Face
  • You've agonized over going back to school. ...
  • Some say you're too serious about your work. ...
  • You had to be more particular about your college search. ...
  • You have a long to-do list. ...
  • You go to bed exhausted more often than not. ...
  • You're frequently balancing school work and your social life.
28 Oct 2016

Does working while attending college positively or negatively impact college performance? ›

Summary: Working part-time or full-time while enrolled in college is not uncommon, but students who do so tend to fall behind their peers in terms of grades or spending more time in undergraduate study, even after controlling for other characteristics such as household resources.

What are the positive effects of working part-time on university students? ›

In addition to offering a paycheck, some independence, and satisfaction, a part-time job can provide both training and experience. Employment teaches students about responsibility and can also reinforce what they are learning in school.

Should students work while studying in college? ›

Although working as a student helps you get relevant real-world experience and crucial soft skills before entering the actual working world while also providing you with your own source of income, there are some drawbacks such as disrupted sleep habits and a high level of stress.

Is working and studying at the same time good for students? ›

However, there are many benefits that come with having a job and studying at the same time. It gives students the confidence they need as it allows you to be in complete control of your finances. At the same time, the qualification that you are pursuing will give you a good head start in developing your career.

Should student work while they are learning at university? ›

Working while studying is a good way to relieve financial pressure and gain knowledge, as well as limit your reliance on a student loan. However, it is important that your part-time job doesn't take up more of your time and energy than you can afford to devote.

How can I be a successful working student? ›

So, here's a simple guide that may help in case you decide to take this path.
  1. Decide what kind of working student you are. ...
  2. Have a firm understanding of the demands of your job and classes. ...
  3. Choose the right school and program. ...
  4. Get adjusted. ...
  5. Simplify your logistics. ...
  6. Invest in the right Tools and mind your expenses.

What it means to be a working student? ›

In higher education the term working student is often used to refer to someone who mainly works and is also studying (part-time). Anyone whose main status is that of an employee, but who is also studying, is no longer allowed to work under a student contract.

How do working students manage their time? ›

Here are some time management tips for students that will help you be effective during busy periods at work.
  1. Plan ahead. ...
  2. Create a schedule. ...
  3. Be realistic. ...
  4. Avoid studying at work. ...
  5. Look after yourself. ...
  6. Talk to people at work. ...
  7. Talk to your friends and family. ...
  8. Maximise travel or exercise time.
24 Sept 2018

Why is it important to work hard in college? ›

Students who work hard and do well in school learn to establish a high expectation level and expect great things from themselves. They decide that they want to strive to become the best of the best and will settle for nothing less. They will carry these standards with them as they get older.

What are the most common problems for college students? ›

Common Issues
  • Social anxiety, general anxiety, test anxiety, or panic attacks.
  • Family expectations or problems.
  • Depression, lack of energy or motivation, hopelessness, being overwhelmed, low self-esteem, homesickness, loneliness.
  • Relationship difficulties (emotional and physical aspects of intimate relationships)

What can you say about being a working student? ›

Being a working student is challenging. You have to do your best while on the job, then come home and take your classes, which include homework and lots of studying. You need to be motivated to stay on track while also keeping a positive outlook.

What are the greatest challenges faced by the students nowadays? ›

The Top Three Challenges Students Face
  • Financial. Most students can't write a personal check or dip into a savings account to pay for tuition, books, and other educational expenses. ...
  • Managing Commitments. Balancing work, school, and family is another major challenge students face. ...
  • Academic Preparedness.
14 Feb 2022

Do college prepare students enough for employment? ›

A new survey shows that while higher education typically provides a good foundation for pursuing a future career, it can fall short in providing an up-to-date education that aligns with employers' needs.

Why is it important for college students to have part time jobs? ›

By working part-time, they can acquire a healthy sense of competition. Part-time work can teach students about responsibility, too. It also gives them a chance to put into practice skills they have learned in school. But they should make sure that their part-time work does not interfere with their studies.

Should students work while they study why or why not essay? ›

Working while studying helps students to realize their potential and develop crucial professional skills. Only in the working environment, it is possible to gain invaluable practical experience and knowledge.

What is a disadvantage of working while in college? ›

Con: Stress

For many students, taking on a job in addition to studying can add an extra layer of stress. Depending on the job you have, the hours and amount you work may have a drastic effect on how well you study. This would, in turn, affect your grades, and possibly even affect a student's loans and grant status.

How much should college students work? ›

Descriptive and correlational studies of national data sets consistently show that students who work fifteen to twenty hours per week, especially on campus, tend to have better outcomes than those who do not work and those who work more than twenty hours per week.

What are two benefits of doing work study? ›

What Is Work-Study? Plus, 4 Advantages of a Federal Work-Study Job
  • You keep what you earn. While you have to pay student loans back with interest, work-study earnings are yours to keep. ...
  • Your paycheck won't affect financial aid eligibility. ...
  • Work-study jobs are convenient. ...
  • The reward can be more than just financial.
14 Jan 2022

Why are there students who prefer to work than study? ›

These students who choose to work instead of studying only proves that they are aware of what is happening. They care for their loved ones and decide to work to support their own needs and help their parents as well.

Is it normal for college students to work full-time? ›

A Georgetown University report shows more than 75% of graduate students and roughly 40% of undergraduates work at least 30 hours per week while attending school. One in four working learners is simultaneously attending full-time college while holding down a full-time job.

What are qualities of a hard working student? ›

Being a hard worker in school means completing assignments on time, putting your maximum effort into every assignment, asking for extra help when you need it, spending the time to study for tests and quizzes, and recognizing weaknesses and looking for ways to improve.

What makes a student successful in learning? ›

Successful students take advantage of extra credit opportunities when offered. They demonstrate that they care about their grades and are willing to work to improve them. They often do the optional (and frequently challenging) assignments that many students avoid. Successful students are attentive in class.

What skills do you need to be a successful student? ›

Take a look at this list of skills your student should start developing in preparation for college.
  • Assertiveness. ...
  • Responsibility. ...
  • Self management skills. ...
  • Communication skills. ...
  • Collaboration skills. ...
  • Independent work skills. ...
  • Critical-thinking skills. ...
  • Study skills.

What does it mean to be a hard working student? ›

The following is a list of what a hard-working student does and what a teacher likes to see. Successful students ... attend classes regularly and they are on time. they get all of the missed notes and assignments from other students or from the professor. turn in assignments complete and on time.

Why do college students struggle with time management? ›

A college environment's freedom and flexibility can derail students who haven't mastered time-management skills. Having left high school's rigidly structured schedules behind, students often struggle to balance academic, personal and work commitments after arriving on campus.

How do you balance your time between studying and working? ›

Six tips for balancing work and study
  1. Explore your workplace support. Your employer may be more accommodating than you realise. ...
  2. Prioritise commitments. ...
  3. Use a calendar. ...
  4. Work smarter, not harder. ...
  5. Manage stress levels and burn-out. ...
  6. Finally, remember why you're doing it.

How does workload affect performance of students? ›

“Our study suggests that [students who are overloaded] experience higher levels of stress and more physical problems like sweating, headaches, exhaustion, stomach problems, and/or sleeping difficulties,” notes Galloway.

What are the common factors that affects the academic performance of students? ›

What Are The Factors Affecting A Higher Secondary School Student's Academic Performance?
  • An Uncomfortable Learning Environment. ...
  • Family Background. ...
  • Learning Infrastructure. ...
  • Difficulty In Understanding. ...
  • Teacher-Student Ratio. ...
  • Information Overload. ...
  • Performance Pressure. ...
  • Unhealthy Lifestyle.
8 Mar 2022

What factors can influence a student's academic performance? ›

Factors That Influence Academic Performance And Productivity
  • A Person's Background. People are all different, and everyone has a different background, history, and family life. ...
  • Housing Environment. ...
  • Mental Health. ...
  • Financial Status. ...
  • Constant Migration. ...
  • Classroom Environment. ...
  • Group Of Friends Or Community. ...
  • School Environment.
21 Jul 2021

How does working affect high school students? ›

Reduced amount of time to study, do homework or participate in extracurriculars. Research shows that students who work more than 20 hours a week have lower GPAs than students who work less than 10 hours a week.

Why Working hard is important for students? ›

When kids work hard in school, they learn knowledge and develop skills. That builds confidence and self-esteem. 2) Working hard prepares kids for higher levels of education. Doing well in elementary school generally leads to good grades in middle and high school.

How can students be taught to manage their workload effectively? ›

Help your child to break their study plan or project into smaller, more manageable chunks. You can give each segment its own due date to help them feel good for meeting small goals. Avoid multi-tasking – divided attention is an inefficient way to learn. Focus on one task at a time for maximum productivity.

What causes stress on college students? ›

College students commonly experience stress because of increased responsibilities, a lack of good time management, changes in eating and sleeping habits, and not taking enough breaks for self-care. Transitioning to college can be a source of stress for most first-year students.

What is the most important factor affecting student learning? ›

A supportive and involved family is one of the most important factors that affects student achievement and academic performance. Research has shown that students with involved parents achieve higher grades, have better attendance, and have bigger long-term aspirations.

What are the most significant factors that influence student learning? ›

In addition, the four school conditions for learning include physical and emotional health and safety; sense of belonging, connectedness, and support; academic challenge and engagement; and social and emotional competence for students and adults.

What were the most common issues raised on a students performance? ›

Academic concerns, which might include issues such as learning difficulties or disabilities, underachievement, lack of attention from teachers, and bullying, affect a number of students throughout their academic careers, from elementary school to college.

How can students improve academic performance? ›

Keys to Academic Success
  1. Accept Responsibility. Remember that you alone are responsible for your academic achievement. ...
  2. Discipline Yourself. ...
  3. Manage Your Time. ...
  4. Stay Ahead. ...
  5. Help Yourself Then Ask for Help. ...
  6. Be Present and Prompt. ...
  7. Don't Quit. ...
  8. Communicate with Instructors.

How do you describe students academic performance? ›

Method of measurement. Student performance is measured using grade point average (GPA), high school graduation rate, annual standardized tests and college entrance exams. A student's GPA is typically measured on a scale of zero to four with higher GPAs representing higher grades in the classroom.


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